Thursday, January 16, 2020

Haier Group: A Chinese Company That Created A Global Brand Essay

Haier Group (â€Å"HG†) is a leading Chinese international manufacturer of large and small appliances, including refrigerators, freezers, conditioners, dishwashers and laundry products to cell phones and televisions. HG is not only known around the world for quality and innovation but as an early mover outside of the Chinese marketplace; it was able to implement a market strategy to take away market share from large manufacturers on their own home-front. I. Haier Group’s Global Brand Strategy A. Haier Group’s Expansion Strategy – It Was Time to Expand China joined the World Trade Organization (â€Å"WTO†) in December 2001 and became part of the international appliance marketplace. HG had a choice to maintain its current position as the leading manufacturer in China or to expand its operations into global markets. HG faced stiff competition from domestic manufactures and multinational companies (â€Å"MNCs†) that were penetrating the Chinese market. Although HG maintained a market advantage based upon its innovative and rapid market response to customer needs, superior after-sales servicing and efficient distribution centers, it would be only a matter of time before MNCs acquired similar resources through third-parties and adapted to local market needs (Palepu pp. 7-9). 1 HG could face overcapacity within the Chinese market – i.e., too many manufactures and not enough market share – and lose the opportunity to support its global expansion to capture market share overseas. If HG have had kept the status quo, it may never have another opportunity to use profits generated from its domestic sales to go head-to-head with large manufactures and develop its own brand. As early as 1997, HG had developed a formal global expansion strategy (Id. at 10). It manufactured products for MNCs overseas and entered into joint ventures (â€Å"JVs†) to explore foreign markets (Id.). HG had acquired access to the latest technology from the U.S. and Europe and was able to leverage its knowledge to manufacturer a better product at a higher profit per unit. Its  competitive advantage was two-fold: (1) product differentiation; and (2) response speed (Id. at 15). HG was successful in China, because it focused on organizing itself to understand what customers want and to satisfy those needs as quickly as possible. It also was able to   introduce brand new products or features that could be added to existing products to meet customers’ needs. While most Chinese manufacturers marketed and sold products under an original equipment manufacturer (â€Å"OEM†) client brand, HG was willing to endure the earlier costs of developing its own brand (Id. at 10). HG adopted an expansion strategy to first build its market share in developed markets and then go after emerging markets. It opined that many Chinese manufacturers would first export to South East Asia where they had no strong dominate competitors; HG would instead focus on the difficult and larger markets of the U.S. and Europe (Id. at 11). If HG could succeed in these markets it would have raised its competitive edge and could easily thrive in emerging markets (Id.). This logic makes sense since, because if the HG brand was widely accepted in the U.S. and Europe, it would become widely accepted as a high quality product in emerging markets. With the support and encouragement of the Chinese government, HG sought the benefits of being an early-mover and manufactured niche products in developed markets neglected by large manufacturers. HG focused on compact refrigerators for college students and offices and wine coolers (Id. at 11-12). When others began to imitate, HG was equipped to add new features, such as mini-fridges that doubled as a computer desk (Id. at 12). HG did not directly compete with the large manufactures in the U.S. and European markets because it had to â€Å"bridge the trust gap† and shed the low-quality  reputation attached to Chinese manufactured goods. After establishing the quality of the niche products, HG was able to gain the attention of major retail chains and introduce standard products to the U.S. HG learned from the mistakes made by MNCs in China and entered into new markets by hiring the right people with knowledge of local markets. HG developed JVs on five different continents, thus spreading the risk, and its strategy allowing HG to leverage knowledge from its local partners. It gained competitive advantage by product differentiation and response speed. HG’s large competitors were inflexible, slow moving and did not focus on the minor details of the customers’ needs. Customers felt as if HG’s products were local brands rather than imported Chinese brands. Haier Group Faced Risks with Global Expansion HG’s decision to globalize in developed markets faced risks if MNCs quickly learned from their mistakes in the Chinese market and started eating into HG’s domestic market share, depriving HG of the profits necessary to expand globally. If MNCs did not underestimate HG, they could have tracked movement and competed directly against the niches that HG sought to fulfill before introducing its standard products to major retailers. HG’s critical vulnerability was the Chinese reputation of manufacturing cheap quality goods, its harsh labor conditions and environmental practices. HG faced the risks that U.S. and European markets would reject out-of-hand the HG brand despite its innovation and high quality. China was fortunate to have HG lead the way in global expansion; another early-moving Chinese manufacturer with lower quality standards and poor market strategy could have resulted in failure and further setbacks for the Chinese government’s â€Å"going outâ⠂¬  policy. II.  Conclusion If HG chose to remain in its domestic market or sell its products under an OEM client  brand, it may have never been afforded an opportunity to develop its own global brand. MNCs invested millions into factories and distribution in China in hopes to prevent HG from using its profits in the domestic market to support its advancement overseas (Id. at 15). HG’s market strategy capitalized on MNCs failures in China and its knowledge of western technology. It was too risky for HG not to make its move into the global community. HG exploited MNC’s slow response to customer needs, inattention to minor details and inflexibility to become a leading player in the global market. The risk of not expanding globally when faced with MNC competition in China outweighed the risks of being complacent with its domestic market share.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Extracurricular Participation And Academic Outcomes

Fredricks, J. (2012). Extracurricular Participation and Academic Outcomes: Testing the Over- Scheduling Hypothesis. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 41(3), 295-306. Jennifer A. Fredricks uses research from various studies to develop her own model of testing her over scheduling hypothesis. The author uses relevant resources that support and don’t support her hypothesis. Her main criteria in testing this hypothesis is breadth, and intensity, the author test her hypothesis of low to moderate levels of extra-curricular participation will display a positive increase in academic achievement, while high levels will begin to show a negative impact on academic achievement levels. Her data was accrued from a wide variety of data obtained in part from over 750 schools and 15, 000 tenth grade students. Although the sample is racially diverse, it still included over forty percent Caucasian Americans. The results concluded, after six years and three different surveys of the original sample that the hypothesis was proven accurate. Rating: 3. The author’s results are clearly biased because her sample was geared towards the majority of white individuals with a higher socioeconomic status. Additionally, she handpicked the school district’s she wished to obtain data from instead of using a random sample. Gatz, M., Messner, M., Ball-Rokeach, S. (2002). Paradoxes of youth and sport (p. 277). Albany: State University of New York. This book investigates various debates from manyShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Athletic Participation On Academic Performance1571 Words   |  7 PagesThe purpose of the literature review was to determined the effects of athletic participation on academic performance and if there were differences between the male and female athletes of the Mennonite High School. 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The purpose of this literatureRead MoreExtracurricular Activity Aiding Positive Development1501 Words   |  7 PagesBettering Students’ Lives: Extracurricular Activity Aiding in Positive Development More than half of American teenagers that attend school participate in some sort of organized activity (Gardner, Roth Brooks-Gunn, 2006). A structured organized activity may include athletic teams, school clubs and organizations like student council or drama club, youth groups, and more. Psychologists are becoming more and more interested in how adolescents are spending their leisure time and how it affects theirRead MoreExtracurricular Activities And Academic Success1230 Words   |  5 Pagesthat around eighty percent of students participate in extracurricular activities. Participating in an extracurricular activity involves balance between the activity and academics while gaining positive impacts. Many people do not see or understand the importance of extracurricular activities. 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Large schools do have some positives that come along with them, but small schools are much better. There are plenty of reasons why smaller schools are more effective than larger schools. Small schools can provide a strong education for rural students. Smaller schools are mostly in rural areas

Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Technology Ruined Peoples Friendship And Relationships

Technology has made communicating difficult and has slowly ruined people’s friendships and relationships. Henry David Thoreau says, â€Å"Society is commonly too cheap. We meet at very intervals, not having had time to acquire any new values to each other.† Interpersonal communication with people is fading away with time, but simultaneously, technology has given people connection with those far from them. Although it does have its advantages, technology has ruined the connection and intimacy people once experienced in a pre-digital age. The disenchantment in peoples friendship caused by technology is clear. Technology has interfered with person friendships and made the relationship undignified and neglecting the fundamentals of it, such as†¦show more content†¦Friends from far away are now connected with the use of the Internet, the internet is a wonderful place to stay connected with family and friends, I use it to stay in contact with my friend Ray that’s going to Cal Poly. Nevertheless, sometimes it can be distracting while I’m hanging out with my cousins, but now people communicate through screens and it’s like a custom and people use social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram, and messaging to do all our â€Å"communicating†, but communicating from technology doesn’t show the person s emotions â€Å"Studies show that only 7% of communication is based on the written or verbal word. A whopping 93% is based on nonverbal body language† (Tardanico). The author, Tardanico, experiences that when her daughter attempted suicide, she talked to her before the incident, she seemed happy and she couldn’t notice her body language and, therefore, realize that she had depression. Communicating with, a person can only be from one way and that’s from face to face talking because individuals can notice what’s happening with the person, however using technology to talk to the person. 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Monday, December 23, 2019

Is Jack Kevorkian A Doctor Death - 1585 Words

Another big advocate for the legal right to die with dignity is Jack Kevorkian also known as ‘doctor death’, he created a sort of stigma for physician assisted death. He was an outspoken figure that brought to the forefront a serious arising problem that hadn’t been discussed in such an open setting. Just for a little basis on his background and credentials, he graduated from Michigan University medical school with a specialty in pathology. In 1956, four years after graduating, he published his first article â€Å"The Fundus Oculi and the Determination of Death.† This article discussed his practice of photographing the eyes of patient’s before they died, this earned him his nickname ‘Doctor Death.’ With his unorthodox practices he changed many laws in the Michigan Legislature. He was claimed to have assisted in more than 130 terminally ill patients suicides through 1990 to 1998. He served eight years for second-degree murder after injec ting a patient with a lethal does himself. Kevorkian had his first successful assisted suicide on June 4, 1990. Her name was Janet Atkins a 54 year old English teacher with Alzheimer’s disease. She first heard of the apparent suicide machine from an episode of the Donahue show. The machine distributed saline solution, and sodium thiopental into the patients’ blood stream. This puts the patient into a deep sleep like coma and for the final reaction. A lethal dose of potassium chloride that stops the heart. This machine was the work and brainchildShow MoreRelatedThe Faults in Dr. Death: The Right to Die with Dignity Essays675 Words   |  3 PagesJack Kevorkian was a doctor who assisted terminally ill patients to commit suicide. He believed that they had the right to die in an appropriate way; to die with dignity. He therefore invented a machine (called thanatron—a Greek word for death machine) which could take away his patients’ lives painlessly and efficiently, all they had to do was to push a bu tton and their lives would be ended by either deadly injection or carbon monoxide poisoning. There had been at least one hundred patients who triedRead MoreDr. Kevorkian, Mudering in the Name of Mercy Essays1347 Words   |  6 Pagescontroversial issue of doctor assisted suicide is followed by a big question. Should states legalize doctor assisted suicide? Physician assisted suicide gives the right for physicians to administer to certain patients lethal doses of drugs with the intention of ending a patients life (Coburn 266). My research for this argument was based on Jack Kervorkian, better known as doctor death. He has admitted helping more than 130 people end their lives (BBC News Online Network). 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Some believe it isnt humane and others believe euthanasia is personal choice. Euthanasia is legal Australia and in four states in the united states. The legality of euthanasia is based on ethics primarily. I am pro euthanasia for many reasons; Euthanasia is cheaper, it ends the suffering of patients, and self determinism. Read MoreVoluntary Euthanasia and Dr. Kevorkian1251 Words   |  6 PagesSuicide Euthanasia, possibly one of the most controversial topics in today’s society. A word that derives from the Greek language meaning, â€Å"good death†. Euthanasia is a term that refers to the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering. Dr. Jack Kevorkian once stated, â€Å"In quixotically trying to conquer death doctors all too frequently do no good for their patients’ â€Å"ease† but at the same time they do harm instead by prolonging and even magnifying patients’ dis-easeRead More Euthanasia: The Strange Case of Dr. Kevorkian Essay664 Words   |  3 PagesEuthanasia: The Strange Case of Dr. Kevorkian Physicians face an ethical dilemma when confronting their patients who are suffering. Many have to choose between abiding by the law or ignoring the law and acting on their own beliefs by assisting in a patient’s suicide. Dr. Jack Kevorkian is certainly one doctor who has taken the illegal route in assisting in many of his patients suicides. In â€Å"Killer Doc,† William F. Buckley provides a brief overview of the case and informs his audience ofRead MoreThe Infamous Story Of Dr. Jack Kevorkian1229 Words   |  5 PagesThe infamous story of Dr. Jack Kevorkian is a unique one. Professor Hengameh M. Hosseini wrote how he was a doctor and was one of the first notable physicians to aid in suicide for his patients that wanted it. In 1989 Kevorkian aided in Janet Adkins suicide, his first patient to do so. After many years of helping his patients in this way, Kevorkian got in trouble in 1998 when he got caught administering a lethal injection to Thomas York, a patient who was suffering from Lou Gehrig’s disease and wantedRead More Physician-Assisted Suicide is Morally and Ethically Acceptable1160 Words   |  5 Pages   Ã‚  Ã‚   The long time debate over medically assisted suicide, the presence of a doctor at a patient’s suicide, resurfaced again with the conviction of doctor Jack Kevorkian.   Kevorkian was convicted of second degree murder when he euthanized, or administered the injection himself, Thomas Youk on September 17, 1998.   Dr. Kevorkian, an advocate and practitioner of medically assisted suicides, has many opponents on the issue. Opponents say that it is unethical and even with the consent of the patient

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Assess the role of ella baker in the civil rights movement Free Essays

string(103) " from clergy or church hierarchy; she was Acting Executive Director until a suitable leader was found\." Introduction Men and their reputations are well known throughout the civil rights movement. McNair-Barnett conducted a study with interviewees from her research in to the movement and asked them who they considered to be the top ten important individual leaders in the movement. 81 individuals were names, 27. We will write a custom essay sample on Assess the role of ella baker in the civil rights movement or any similar topic only for you Order Now 2 per cent were women compared to 72.8 per cent of men (McNair Barnett, 1993). It is clear that men were also more focused on in terms of the press and people in the movement. There are many different reasons that could possibly account for this. The women’s liberation movement did not begin in American until the late 1960’s; therefore it was hard for women to have a role in the civil rights movement as an established leader. Also, at the time of the movement, men would have had to lead due to gender bias’ at the time for he movement to have made progress and begin to generate change. As a product of time, men were at he forefront whilst women were more of than not behind the scenes. Typically, men tended to front organisations such as The Congress of Racial Equality and the Nation Association for The Advancement of Coloured People. Men in these roles often controlled meetings and made decisions over policies and movement strategies. Women however, were not in such high profile roles and tended to stay behind the scenes as found by Sacks study (Barnett, 1997). Women typically organised events, and worked in clerical and secretarial roles in order for the movement organisations to run as smoothly as possible. As a result, women have often not been given the recognition that they deserve. Ella Baker in particular has not been recognised for her tireless efforts throughout the civil rights movement. She has been described as â€Å"a largely unsung hero of the Civil Rights Freedom Movement who inspired and guided emerging leaders† (ellabakercenter.org). Baker also acquired the nickname ‘Fundi’ from her time as an activist. ‘Fundi’ is a Swahili word meaning a person who teaches a craft to the next generation (REF), giving a slight indication as to how important her role in the civil rights movement was. Ella Josephine baker was born on December 13th 1903, in Raleigh, North Carolina. She grew up listening to her grandmother’s experiences growing up on slave plantations. Ella Baker attended Shaw University, Raleigh, North Carolina and regularly challenged university policies that she thought were unfair, she graduated as class valedictorian in 1927. After graduating, Baker worked in editorial roles, particularly for the American West Indian News from 1928-1930 and the Negro National News in 1932. Baker had befriended George Schulyer, who founded the Young Negroes Cooperative League together with Baker in 1931, and became its national director (Mueller in Crawford, 1993). This led to her employment with New Deals Works Progress Association bringing people together through collective buying. It was during her time with New Deals Works Progress that Baker was exposed to newer radical ideas surrounding social change. (Ella baker quote in Mueller in Crawford about time in NY) In 1938 Baker joined the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People and stressed the importance of young people and women in the organisation. However, it has been suggested that Baker was against the NAACP’s traditional strategy of appealing to the professional ranks in society to lead the masses (Elliot, 1996). Elliot believes that Ella Bakers philosophy was â€Å"power to the people† (Elliot, 1996). Baker believed that people had to help themselves in order to discover solutions to their problems, she believed that â€Å"oppressed people, whatever their level of formal education have the ability to understand and interpret the world around them, to see the world for what it is, and move to transform it† (www.ellabakercenter.org). by 1941, Baker had become an assistant field secretary of the NAACP. Whilst with the NAACP, baker helped to organise voter registration drives, and actively campaigned for school desegregation and was against police b rutality issues. In the late 1940’s Baker had become a field secretary for the New York Branch of the NAACP and had become â€Å"the NAACP’s most effective organiser† (www.blackpast.org). Ella Baker in an interview with Gerda Lerner, a historian, described her role in the NAACP; â€Å"you would deal with whatever the local problem was and on the basis of the needs of the people you would try to organise them in the NAACP† (Lerner, 1972, p.347). Baker worked well in the NAACP, hence her reputation. She believed that â€Å"you relationships to human beings was more important than your relationship to the amount of money you made† (Cantarow and Omally, p.60). It was perhaps this belief that made her such a central organiser within the NAACP, as she had a very down to earth view of the world and equality, and as a result, was able to work with all people from different walks of life when travelling through the south as a field secretary for the NAACP. Baker left her role as field secretary in 1946 to care for her niece in New York but remained a volunteer, she became its president in 1952 but resigned in 1953 to run for the New York City Council, but it was unsuccessful (Ransby, 2003, p.14). In 1955, Ella Baker, along with Bayard Rustin and Stanley Levison co founded the organisation ‘In Friendship’ to raise money to fight against Jim Crow laws in the south (Payne, 1989). However, it was not until 1957 when she became involved with another prominent organisation in the movement. Baker moved to Atlanta, to help organise the Southern Christian Leadership Conference with Martin Luther King. Baker was the associate director of the SCLC (Elliot, 1996) and was involved with the day to day running of the organisation and the office. Ella Baker later became the SCLC’s Acting Executive Director. The Civil Rights Movement was a largely church based movement and as a result, Baker was never considered a legitimate leader, as she had not descended from clergy or church hierarchy; she was Acting Executive Director until a suitable leader was found. You read "Assess the role of ella baker in the civil rights movement" in category "Essay examples" Mueller suggests, â€Å"her policy suggestions for greater emphasis on local organising and the inclusion of Women and youth were largely ignored† (Mueller in Crawford, 1993, p.62). Ella Baker was aware of this discrimination in the SCLC though when she was asked why she decided to leave the SCLC she replied; â€Å"in the first place, I had known, number one that there would never be any role for me in a leadership capacity with the SCLC. WhyFirst I’m a woman. Also, I’m not a minister† (Robnett, 1996). Female status in the movement was gained through acts of courage and positions of power were through community work or extraordinary activism, not through church hierarchy, the way men gained leadership was more often than not through church hierarchy in terms of the clergy. There is plenty of evidence to suggest that women weren’t aware of their positions as secondary to the roles of men. Victoria Gray recalls â€Å"there are just so few places where historically the black male could have any authority, if you will. That is not an accident, I assure you. Where that was possible the community supported that† (Robnett, 1997, p.41). Gray suggests that women supported men in positions of power, despite that often meaning that women would come secondary to them. Bernice Johnson Reagon claims â€Å"as an empowered human being I never experienced being held back† (Robnett, 1997, p.37). Whilst these women appear to be unaware of the gender bias at the time, there were women in the spotlight who were aware of the constraints of both race and gender. Dorothy Height, a well known woman in the movement, said the main downside to being a female leader amongst men, was that it was â€Å"sometimes hard for them to realise the importance of womenà ¢â‚¬â„¢s rights†(www.onlinenewshour.com) Martin Luther King Jr acknowledged â€Å"women, while capable of leadership, did not and should not exercise this ability by choice† (Robnett, 1996). It was difficult for women to hold positions of power during the movement, as women’s liberation had not yet begun. However, Dorothy Cotton an activist in the movement recalls; â€Å"Men were programmed to be chauvinistic, but we allowed it too, women deferred to their husbands† (Robnett, 1997, p.43), indicating that a separation of male and female roles in the movement was a product of the time. The post-war era continued the public and private sphere ideology; men and women had their separate roles in separate aspects of life. It is important to realise that men had found themselves in a position of power after so long of having no access to any form of power and therefore the chance to lead was an opportunity that was too good to turn down. Clyde Franklin believes a reason for this is that â€Å"in America, blac k males have only been ‘men’ for about twenty years† (Ling, YR. p.6). After the Greensboro Sit-Ins in 1960, where black members of society sat in segregated white areas in Woolworth stores across America, two months in to the sit-ins, they had spread to 54 cities in 9 states (www.sitins.org). By July 1960, Woolworth stores had agreed to integrate the lunch counter at the Greensboro store. It was after this that Baker realised people were determined to make a change, and called together 300 students for the South wide Student Leadership Conference on Non-violent Resistance to Segregation, which later changed it’s name to Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. Elliot suggests that students of the SNCC trusted Ella Baker because of instead of dictating policy she guided students to solutions (Elliot, 1996). This could, however, be due to her time spent at The Highlander Folk School. The Highlander Folk School was geared towards teaching African-Americans how to read in order to enable them to progress and to empower black communities to furthe r develop more local leaders. Mueller believed that is was Bakers aim to â€Å"help local leaders develop their own leadership potential† (Mueller in Crawford, 1993, p.58). In Bakers time with the SNCC, she had an active role in coordinating the nationwide freedom rides of 1961, where blacks were to ride busses in to southern states sat in areas of the public busses that had previously been reserved for white passengers (Carson). In 1964, Baker also helped to organise the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. The party was not seated with delegation but held an influence over the Democratic Party to elect black leaders in Mississippi, which forced a rule change to allow women and minorities to sit as delegates at the Democratic National Convention (FIND REF). Whilst working with the SNCC Baker also worked o the staff of the Southern Conference Education Fund from 1962-1967, which aimed to bring black ad white people together to work for social justice. In her time on the staff of the SCEF, Baker took part in a speaker tour to reunite black and whites and co-hosted important meetings on the links of civil rights and civil liberties (Ransby, 2003). Ella Baker was a strong advocate of Participatory Democracy that was popular during the 1960’s. Participatory Democracy had three main aims focused on participation. The first was an appeal for the grass roots involvement of those in society over decisions that control their own lives. The next step is to minimize hierarchy and emphasis on expertise and professionalism as a basis for the election of a leader. The third main emphasis was to call for direct action as an answer to fear, alienation, and intellectual detachments. Mueller notes, â€Å"participatory democracy legitimized an active public voice† (Mueller in Crawford, 1993, p.52). Participatory democracy is evident in Bakers style of activism; particularly through the way in which she encouraged members of the SNCC to find solutions to their problems rather than to dictate the solutions to them. Baker believed that â€Å"the major job was getting people to understand that they had something in their power that they could use, and it could be used if they understood what was happening and how group actions count counter violence† (www.ellabakercenter.org) showing how focused she was on the grass roots involvement of people in the movement. Ella Bakers role in the Civil Rights Movement was essential. Her behind the scenes activism challenged and helped to change the society of America. By Helping to organise voter registration drives she enabled black people of America to have the right to vote in elections, and her role as field secretary of the NAACP helping southern states through the organisation to solve local issues in order to unite a front against national issues. Her co-founding of ‘In Friendship’ also geared towards those in the Jim Crow stricken states in the south where systematic segregation and racism was often stronger than in the northern states. Her organisation of the SNCC was groundbreaking; changing the way people though out solutions to their problems. It was perhaps her role in the SNCC where her strong advocacy for participatory democracy shines through, as she aimed to guide rather than dictate. Shyrlee Dallard sums up the effort of Ella Baker, writing â€Å"for Ella Baker, organisi ng was more than a job† (Dallard, 1990, p.6). Baker put her heart and soul in to organising events and organisations geared towards changing American society in to an equal society. The Ella Baker Center is dedicated to leading in the way that Ella Baker did, to encourage people to work towards professional opportunities in order to better themselves and their local communities through the running of various campaigns. The Heal the Streets Campaign trains people to act against violence in Oakland, Illinois. The center is dedicated towards the following of Ella Baker’s philosophy, ‘Power to The People†. 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Friday, December 6, 2019

Management and Organization in Global Environment Cybernetics

Question: Discuss about theManagement and Organization in Global Environment for Cybernetics. Answer: Introduction The Law of Requisite Variety is one of the key theories that help a business in achieving efficient and sustainable management and organization. The Law of Requisite Variety states that the person who has the most flexibility in a system will eventually control the system (Axelrod VanDeveer, 2014). This is because the individual or the person who exhibits the highest degree of flexibility of behaviour in the system will have the most influence over it. This law, which is also known as the first law of Cybernetics, has often been termed to be a highly convenient and empowering methodology. The Law of Requisite Variety enables not only overall development of the business but also ensures personal development of the individual who adheres to it. The basic essence of this law can be stated as the more choices an individual has, the more freedom he/she gets to feel. This results in an improvement in the general quality of life. Requisite means required or necessary. Variety is more or less different versions of accumulation of information (Bhagavatula, Mudambi Murmann, 2017). So, the Law of Requisite Variety provides different versions of required information. It presents more choices and more freedom. The individual who can make the best use of it eventually has a better control over the entire system. The Law of Requisite Variety, when implemented in a business can bring about a plethora of positive effects. Some of these are Introduction of flexibility in the business environment in terms of the various techniques that can be employed in an organization The choices of the collaborators and the shareholders are also diversified over time With the increase in the number of choices, the number of business clients also increases both in terms of brands and the quality of work. The implementation of the Law of Requisite Variety in a business however has to be done carefully. The variety that is made available in the system should be perfectly controlled. Inadequate variety can result in an ineffective system while excessive variety can also destroy the system (Biagini, et al., 2014). Therefore, a perfect balance has to be struck and the individual should exhibit flexibility and intelligence while making a choice. Business goals have to kept in mind at all times and the required steps have to be taken (Hisrich Ramadani, 2016). Conclusion It is highly recommended that every business makes use of the Law of Requisite Theory for achieving its objectives. Not only do the managers get the flexibility where they can use different styles of leadership, it also increases the chances of successful outcomes for the organization. Employee Motivation - Expectancy Theory Executive Summary Another key method to boost the management and organization in a business is the Expectancy Theory which focuses on employee motivation. Given by Victor Vroom, the Expectancy Theory of Motivation states that an individual (in this case an employee) will behave or choose to act in a certain manner because they are motivated to do so as they expect certain outcomes from this specific behaviour over others. Introduction Expectancy is often described as the belief that increased effort leads to increased performance. Various individual factors like personality, knowledge, experience, skills and abilities influence an employees performance. And hence, expectancy in any of these spheres can improve the performance of an employee. According to this theory, motivation, effort and performance are all inter-related (Karekezi, 2016). Vrooms Expectancy Theory for employee motivation assumes that behaviour is a consequence of certain conscious choices that an individual makes when presented with a number of alternatives. The individual tends to pick that option that will give him satisfaction in his career objectives and also reduce stress. If an employee is able to perform well and attain his career objectives, this gets reflected on the overall business and the organization achieves steady growth. The income and the productivity of the business witness a gradual increase over the years. Two other terms that this theory mentions are instrumentality and valence (Lawler III Worley, 2015). Instrumentality is the belief that if one performs well, he or she can get a valued outcome. Valence is the belief that the individual has in the fact that this valued outcome is what he or she wants. Hence, the expectancy-instrumentality-valence cycle is very important from a business perspective (Marroqun-Cardona, et al., 2014). Implementation of the Expectancy theory in practice requires a number of factors to be fulfilled. Having the right skill set to do the job, having good managerial skills to get the job done and also having the right resources are a few of them (Marroqun-Cardona, et al., 2014). The expectancy theory, however, becomes ineffective when the employee goals are not in sync with the organizational goals. Therefore, before the implementation of this theory, employees should be clearly told about the long and short term goals of the business (Marroqun-Cardona, et al., 2014). Conclusion It is of utmost importance that the expectancy theory for employee motivation be implemented in day-to-day business as motivated employees hugely contribute to the productivity of the business. Employees who are willing to give long hours and work hard for the company also have certain expectations in return. Finding the perfect balance between these two is the key to a successful and sustainable business. These theories find application in every industry and have been tried and tested for a long time now. Keeping the employees motivated and happy is a must in every industry as happy employees make a happy company. References Axelrod, R. S., VanDeveer, S. D. (Eds.). (2014).The global environment: institutions, law, and policy. CQ Press. Bhagavatula, S., Mudambi, R., Murmann, J. P. (2017). Management and Organization Review Special Issue The Innovation and Entrepreneurship Ecosystem in India.Management and Organization Review,13(1), 209-212. Biagini, B., Bierbaum, R., Stults, M., Dobardzic, S., McNeeley, S. M. (2014). A typology of adaptation actions: A global look at climate adaptation actions financed through the Global Environment Facility.Global Environmental Change,25, 97-108. Hisrich, R. D., Ramadani, V. (2016).Effective Entrepreneurial Management: Strategy, Planning, Risk Management, and Organization. Springer. Karekezi, S. (2016). Generic Skills of Management and Organization: The Energy Sector in Africa Stephen Karekezi.New Generic Technologies in Developing Countries, 174. Lawler III, E. E., Worley, C. G. (2015). Organization Agility and Talent Management. Marroqun-Cardona, A. G., Johnson, N. M., Phillips, T. D., Hayes, A. W. (2014). Mycotoxins in a changing global environmenta review.Food and Chemical Toxicology,69, 220-230. Ribeiro, J., Machado, C. (2017). Global Talent Management: Reality or Utopia? A Special Glance Through a Portuguese Multinational Organization. InCompetencies and (Global) Talent Management(pp. 115-141). Springer International Publishing.

Friday, November 29, 2019

Robert Lowel & John Berryman Essays - Guggenheim Fellows

Robert Lowel & John Berryman Lowell and Berryman Robert Lowell and John Berryman both used their personal experiences as visuals in their writings. Their styles are similar in that aspect. Robert Lowells poem The Drunken Fisherman tells a story about himself fishing, and describes the seen in great detail. Of Suicide, written by John Berryman, is an autobiographical poem about how depressed he is. Berrymans work describes in detail what he thinks about and what was going on in his life at that moment making him feel so depressed. The Drunken Fisherman by Robert Lowell is a poem based on a specific instance, when the writer was fishing. THE DRUNKEN FISHERMAN Wallowing in this bloody sty, I cast for fish that pleased my eye (Truly Jehovahs bow suspends No pots of gold to weight its ends); Only the blood mouthed rainbow trout Rose to my bait. They flopped about My canvas creel until the moth Corrupted its unstable cloth. The first part of the poem explains what he is doing. The writer is fishing for rainbow trout because he likes the way it looks. Lowell states that he is not fishing for money, rather he is fishing for rainbow trout, a fish that likes the taste of blood. When he catches a fish, he puts it in his canvas pouch where it flops about until it is dead. A calendar to tell the day A handkerchief to wave away The gnats; a couch unstuffed with storm Pouching a bottle in one arm; A whisky bottle full of worms; And bedroom slacks: are these fit terms To mete the worm whose molten rage boils in the belly of old age? This part of the poem describes the physical appearance of the subject. He has a calendar to tell what day it is, a handkerchief to swat at the gnats. He is sitting on, or could possibly be, like a couch that is old and weathered. He sits with a bottle of whisky in one arm, and another empty bottle filled with worms in the other. His attire consists of simple, worn pajamas. He asks if this these terms are good enough to be fishing with worms, in his old age. Once fishing was a rabbits foot- O wind blow cold, O wind blow hot, Let suns stay in or suns step out: Life danced a jig on the sperm-whales spout- The fishers fluent and obscene Catches kept his conscience clean. Children, the raging memory drools Over the glory of past pools. He says that fishing used to be good luck. Weather it was hot or cold and in day or night, you could always catch a fish to eat. He goes on to tell how people exploited fishing, particularly the sperm-whale, saying that fishermen used to catch a lot in order to keep there conscious clean of the harm they were doing, so that the money they were making out weighed the guilt. But there children will never be able to escape the memory of the harm their parents caused just for glory. Now the hot river, ebbing, hauls Its bloody waters into holes; A grain of sand inside my shoe Mimics the moon that might undo Man and Creation too; remorse, Stinking, has puddled up its source; Here tantrums thrash to a wales rage. This is the pot-hole of old age. The hot river of blood flows back to the sea, it waters into holes in the earth like a grain of sand that doesnt really mater any more, its just part of the world. It is a part of man and creation that has been plugged up time after time, but that will never stop the rage of the whale. The last line of this stanza brings you back to the seen that was set before, of an old man sitting in his old age. Is there no way to cast my hook Out of this dynamited brook? The Fishers sons must cast about When shallow waters peter about. I will catch Christ with a greased worm, And when the Prince of Darkness stalks My bloodstream to its stygian term... On water the Man-Fisher walks. He asks if there is any way to get out of the life that he has created for himself, he only hopes that his children can find another way. He will find salvation in fishing while he awaits his death. Death comes in all shapes and sizes, his will come in the form of a Man-Fisher. You reap what you sow. John Berrymans Of Suicide is a poem that was obviously written when the author was